HIV: how to manage heavily treatment-experienced patients

Stephanie Spivack, Stephen Pagkalinawan, Rafik Samuel, David E Koren


Although decreasing in prevalence, heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) persons with limited options for HIV treatment present unique complexities, even amongst experienced providers, as there is no single approach to successful management. HTE patients are described as those having two or less antiretroviral (ARV) classes available for use with limited fully active ARV agents within each class. A detailed understanding of the underlying processes that caused previous treatment failures, diagnostics to define resistance, resistance mechanisms and ARV pharmacology should all function in tandem to determine the next steps of clinical care. This narrative review provides an overview of the clinician approach to care, including diagnostics, approaches to regimen creation, relevant resources, and a broad array of both currently available and upcoming ARVs that may be used in regimens for HTE patients.

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Accepted: ; Published: .


Spivack S, Pagkalinawan S, Samuel R, Koren DE. HIV: how to manage heavily treatment-experienced patients. Drugs Context. 2022;11:2021-9-1.

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